blob: 7f14c57d89f959b0ed7356b806ea251e3c4a49df [file] [log] [blame]
.. _chapter-pw-cpu-exception:
.. default-domain:: cpp
.. highlight:: cpp
Pigweed's exception module provides a consistent interface for entering an
application's CPU exception handler. While the actual exception handling
behavior is left to an application to implement, this module deals with any
architecture-specific actions required before calling the application exception
handler. More specifically, the exception module collects CPU state that may
otherwise be clobbered by an application's exception handler.
An application using this module **must** connect ``pw_CpuExceptionEntry()`` to
the platform's CPU exception handler interrupt so ``pw_CpuExceptionEntry()`` is
called immediately upon a CPU exception. For specifics on how this may be done,
see the backend documentation for your architecture.
Applications must also provide an implementation for
``pw::cpu_exception::HandleCpuException()``. The behavior of this functions
is entirely up to the application/project, but some examples are provided below:
* Enter an infinite loop so the device can be debugged by JTAG.
* Reset the device.
* Attempt to handle the exception so execution can continue.
* Capture and record additional device state and save to flash for a crash
* A combination of the above, using logic that fits the needs of your project.
Module Usage
Basic usage of this module entails applications supplying a definition for
``pw::cpu_exception::HandleCpuException()``. ``HandleCpuException()`` should
contain any logic to determine if a exception can be recovered from, as well
as necessary actions to properly recover. If the device cannot recover from the
exception, the function should **not** return.
When writing an exception handler, prefer to use the functions provided by this
interface rather than relying on the backend implementation of ``CpuState``.
This allows better code portability as it helps prevent an application fault
handler from being tied to a single backend.
For example; when logging or dumping CPU state, prefer ``ToString()`` or
``RawFaultingCpuState()`` over directly accessing members of a ``CpuState``
Some exception handling behavior may require architecture-specific CPU state to
attempt to correct a fault. In this situation, the application's exception
handler will be tied to the backend implementation of the CPU exception module.
* pw_span
* pw_preprocessor
Backend Expectations
CPU exception backends do not provide an exception handler, but instead provide
mechanisms to capture CPU state for use by an application's exception handler,
and allow recovery from CPU exceptions when possible.
* A backend should provide a definition for the ``CpuState`` struct that
provides suitable means to access and modify any captured CPU state.
* If an application's exception handler modifies the captured CPU state, the
state should be treated as though it were the original state of the CPU when
the exception occurred. The backend may need to manually restore some of the
modified state to ensure this on exception handler return.
* A backend should implement the ``pw_CpuExceptionEntry()`` function that will
call ``HandleCpuException()`` after performing any necessary actions prior
to handing control to the application's exception handler (e.g. capturing
necessary CPU state).