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&#160;<span id="projectnumber">2.1.2</span>
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<div class="title">PPP<div class="ingroups"><a class="el" href="group__netifs.html">NETIFs</a></div></div> </div>
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<pre class="fragment">PPP interface for lwIP
Author: Sylvain Rochet
Table of Contents:
1 - Supported PPP protocols and features
2 - Raw API PPP example for all protocols
3 - PPPoS input path (raw API, IRQ safe API, TCPIP API)
4 - Thread safe PPP API (PPPAPI)
5 - Notify phase callback (PPP_NOTIFY_PHASE)
6 - Upgrading from lwIP &lt;= 1.4.x to lwIP &gt;= 2.0.x
1 Supported PPP protocols and features
Supported Low level protocols:
* PPP over serial using HDLC-like framing, such as wired dialup modems
or mobile telecommunications GPRS/EDGE/UMTS/HSPA+/LTE modems
* PPP over Ethernet, such as xDSL modems
* PPP over L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) LAC (L2TP Access Concentrator),
IP tunnel over UDP, such as VPN access
Supported auth protocols:
* PAP, Password Authentication Protocol
* CHAP, Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol, also known as CHAP-MD5
* MSCHAPv1, Microsoft version of CHAP, version 1
* MSCHAPv2, Microsoft version of CHAP, version 2
* EAP, Extensible Authentication Protocol
Supported address protocols:
* IPCP, IP Control Protocol, IPv4 addresses negotiation
* IP6CP, IPv6 Control Protocol, IPv6 link-local addresses negotiation
Supported encryption protocols:
* MPPE, Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption
Supported compression or miscellaneous protocols, for serial links only:
* PFC, Protocol Field Compression
* ACFC, Address-and-Control-Field-Compression
* ACCM, Asynchronous-Control-Character-Map
* VJ, Van Jacobson TCP/IP Header Compression
2 Raw API PPP example for all protocols
As usual, raw API for lwIP means the lightweight API which *MUST* only be used
for NO_SYS=1 systems or called inside lwIP core thread for NO_SYS=0 systems.
* Globals
* =======
/* The PPP control block */
ppp_pcb *ppp;
/* The PPP IP interface */
struct netif ppp_netif;
* PPP status callback
* ===================
* PPP status callback is called on PPP status change (up, down, …) from lwIP
* core thread
/* PPP status callback example */
static void status_cb(ppp_pcb *pcb, int err_code, void *ctx) {
struct netif *pppif = ppp_netif(pcb);
switch(err_code) {
const ip_addr_t *ns;
#endif /* LWIP_DNS */
printf("status_cb: Connected\n");
printf(" our_ipaddr = %s\n", ipaddr_ntoa(&amp;pppif-&gt;ip_addr));
printf(" his_ipaddr = %s\n", ipaddr_ntoa(&amp;pppif-&gt;gw));
printf(" netmask = %s\n", ipaddr_ntoa(&amp;pppif-&gt;netmask));
ns = dns_getserver(0);
printf(" dns1 = %s\n", ipaddr_ntoa(ns));
ns = dns_getserver(1);
printf(" dns2 = %s\n", ipaddr_ntoa(ns));
#endif /* LWIP_DNS */
#endif /* PPP_IPV4_SUPPORT */
printf(" our6_ipaddr = %s\n", ip6addr_ntoa(netif_ip6_addr(pppif, 0)));
#endif /* PPP_IPV6_SUPPORT */
printf("status_cb: Invalid parameter\n");
printf("status_cb: Unable to open PPP session\n");
printf("status_cb: Invalid I/O device for PPP\n");
printf("status_cb: Unable to allocate resources\n");
printf("status_cb: User interrupt\n");
printf("status_cb: Connection lost\n");
printf("status_cb: Failed authentication challenge\n");
printf("status_cb: Failed to meet protocol\n");
printf("status_cb: Connection timeout\n");
printf("status_cb: Idle Timeout\n");
printf("status_cb: Max connect time reached\n");
printf("status_cb: Loopback detected\n");
default: {
printf("status_cb: Unknown error code %d\n", err_code);
* This should be in the switch case, this is put outside of the switch
* case for example readability.
if (err_code == PPPERR_NONE) {
/* ppp_close() was previously called, don't reconnect */
if (err_code == PPPERR_USER) {
/* ppp_free(); -- can be called here */
* Try to reconnect in 30 seconds, if you need a modem chatscript you have
* to do a much better signaling here ;-)
ppp_connect(pcb, 30);
/* OR ppp_listen(pcb); */
* Creating a new PPPoS session
* ============================
* In lwIP, PPPoS is not PPPoSONET, in lwIP PPPoS is PPPoSerial.
#include "netif/ppp/pppos.h"
* PPPoS serial output callback
* ppp_pcb, PPP control block
* data, buffer to write to serial port
* len, length of the data buffer
* ctx, optional user-provided callback context pointer
* Return value: len if write succeed
static u32_t output_cb(ppp_pcb *pcb, u8_t *data, u32_t len, void *ctx) {
return uart_write(UART, data, len);
* Create a new PPPoS interface
* ppp_netif, netif to use for this PPP link, i.e. PPP IP interface
* output_cb, PPPoS serial output callback
* status_cb, PPP status callback, called on PPP status change (up, down, …)
* ctx_cb, optional user-provided callback context pointer
ppp = pppos_create(&amp;ppp_netif,
output_cb, status_cb, ctx_cb);
* Creating a new PPPoE session
* ============================
#include "netif/ppp/pppoe.h"
* Create a new PPPoE interface
* ppp_netif, netif to use for this PPP link, i.e. PPP IP interface
* ethif, already existing and setup Ethernet interface to use
* service_name, PPPoE service name discriminator (not supported yet)
* concentrator_name, PPPoE concentrator name discriminator (not supported yet)
* status_cb, PPP status callback, called on PPP status change (up, down, …)
* ctx_cb, optional user-provided callback context pointer
ppp = pppoe_create(&amp;ppp_netif,
service_name, concentrator_name,
status_cb, ctx_cb);
* Creating a new PPPoL2TP session
* ===============================
#include "netif/ppp/pppol2tp.h"
* Create a new PPPoL2TP interface
* ppp_netif, netif to use for this PPP link, i.e. PPP IP interface
* netif, optional already existing and setup output netif, necessary if you
* want to set this interface as default route to settle the chicken
* and egg problem with VPN links
* ipaddr, IP to connect to
* port, UDP port to connect to (usually 1701)
* secret, L2TP secret to use
* secret_len, size in bytes of the L2TP secret
* status_cb, PPP status callback, called on PPP status change (up, down, …)
* ctx_cb, optional user-provided callback context pointer
ppp = pppol2tp_create(&amp;ppp_netif,
struct netif *netif, ip_addr_t *ipaddr, u16_t port,
u8_t *secret, u8_t secret_len,
ppp_link_status_cb_fn link_status_cb, void *ctx_cb);
* Initiate PPP client connection
* ==============================
/* Set this interface as default route */
* Basic PPP client configuration. Can only be set if PPP session is in the
* dead state (i.e. disconnected). We don't need to provide thread-safe
* equivalents through PPPAPI because those helpers are only changing
* structure members while session is inactive for lwIP core. Configuration
* only need to be done once.
/* Ask the peer for up to 2 DNS server addresses. */
ppp_set_usepeerdns(ppp, 1);
/* Auth configuration, this is pretty self-explanatory */
ppp_set_auth(ppp, PPPAUTHTYPE_ANY, "login", "password");
* Initiate PPP negotiation, without waiting (holdoff=0), can only be called
* if PPP session is in the dead state (i.e. disconnected).
u16_t holdoff = 0;
ppp_connect(ppp, holdoff);
* Initiate PPP server listener
* ============================
* Basic PPP server configuration. Can only be set if PPP session is in the
* dead state (i.e. disconnected). We don't need to provide thread-safe
* equivalents through PPPAPI because those helpers are only changing
* structure members while session is inactive for lwIP core. Configuration
* only need to be done once.
ip4_addr_t addr;
/* Set our address */
IP4_ADDR(&amp;addr, 192,168,0,1);
ppp_set_ipcp_ouraddr(ppp, &amp;addr);
/* Set peer(his) address */
IP4_ADDR(&amp;addr, 192,168,0,2);
ppp_set_ipcp_hisaddr(ppp, &amp;addr);
/* Set primary DNS server */
IP4_ADDR(&amp;addr, 192,168,10,20);
ppp_set_ipcp_dnsaddr(ppp, 0, &amp;addr);
/* Set secondary DNS server */
IP4_ADDR(&amp;addr, 192,168,10,21);
ppp_set_ipcp_dnsaddr(ppp, 1, &amp;addr);
/* Auth configuration, this is pretty self-explanatory */
ppp_set_auth(ppp, PPPAUTHTYPE_ANY, "login", "password");
/* Require peer to authenticate */
ppp_set_auth_required(ppp, 1);
* Only for PPPoS, the PPP session should be up and waiting for input.
* Note: for PPPoS, ppp_connect() and ppp_listen() are actually the same thing.
* The listen call is meant for future support of PPPoE and PPPoL2TP server
* mode, where we will need to negotiate the incoming PPPoE session or L2TP
* session before initiating PPP itself. We need this call because there is
* two passive modes for PPPoS, ppp_set_passive and ppp_set_silent.
ppp_set_silent(pppos, 1);
* Initiate PPP listener (i.e. wait for an incoming connection), can only
* be called if PPP session is in the dead state (i.e. disconnected).
* Closing PPP connection
* ======================
* Initiate the end of the PPP session, without carrier lost signal
* (nocarrier=0), meaning a clean shutdown of PPP protocols.
* You can call this function at anytime.
u8_t nocarrier = 0;
ppp_close(ppp, nocarrier);
* Then you must wait your status_cb() to be called, it may takes from a few
* seconds to several tens of seconds depending on the current PPP state.
* Freeing a PPP connection
* ========================
* Free the PPP control block, can only be called if PPP session is in the
* dead state (i.e. disconnected). You need to call ppp_close() before.
3 PPPoS input path (raw API, IRQ safe API, TCPIP API)
Received data on serial port should be sent to lwIP using the pppos_input()
function or the pppos_input_tcpip() function.
If NO_SYS is 1 and if PPP_INPROC_IRQ_SAFE is 0 (the default), pppos_input()
is not IRQ safe and then *MUST* only be called inside your main loop.
Whatever the NO_SYS value, if PPP_INPROC_IRQ_SAFE is 1, pppos_input() is IRQ
safe and can be safely called from an interrupt context, using that is going
to reduce your need of buffer if pppos_input() is called byte after byte in
your rx serial interrupt.
if NO_SYS is 0, the thread safe way outside an interrupt context is to use
the pppos_input_tcpip() function to pass input data to the lwIP core thread
using the TCPIP API. This is thread safe in all cases but you should avoid
passing data byte after byte because it uses heavy locking (mailbox) and it
allocates pbuf, better fill them !
if NO_SYS is 0 and if PPP_INPROC_IRQ_SAFE is 1, you may also use pppos_input()
from an RX thread, however pppos_input() is not thread safe by itself. You can
do that *BUT* you should NEVER call pppos_connect(), pppos_listen() and
ppp_free() if pppos_input() can still be running, doing this is NOT thread safe
at all. Using PPP_INPROC_IRQ_SAFE from an RX thread is discouraged unless you
really know what you are doing, your move ;-)
* Fonction to call for received data
* ppp, PPP control block
* buffer, input buffer
* buffer_len, buffer length in bytes
void pppos_input(ppp, buffer, buffer_len);
void pppos_input_tcpip(ppp, buffer, buffer_len);
4 Thread safe PPP API (PPPAPI)
There is a thread safe API for all corresponding ppp_* functions, you have to
enable LWIP_PPP_API in your lwipopts.h file, then see
include/netif/ppp/pppapi.h, this is actually pretty obvious.
5 Notify phase callback (PPP_NOTIFY_PHASE)
Notify phase callback, enabled using the PPP_NOTIFY_PHASE config option, let
you configure a callback that is called on each PPP internal state change.
This is different from the status callback which only warns you about
up(running) and down(dead) events.
Notify phase callback can be used, for example, to set a LED pattern depending
on the current phase of the PPP session. Here is a callback example which
tries to mimic what we usually see on xDSL modems while they are negotiating
the link, which should be self-explanatory:
static void ppp_notify_phase_cb(ppp_pcb *pcb, u8_t phase, void *ctx) {
switch (phase) {
/* Session is down (either permanently or briefly) */
led_set(PPP_LED, LED_OFF);
/* We are between two sessions */
/* Session just started */
/* Session is running */
led_set(PPP_LED, LED_ON);
6 Upgrading from lwIP &lt;= 1.4.x to lwIP &gt;= 2.0.x
PPP API was fully reworked between 1.4.x and 2.0.x releases. However porting
from previous lwIP version is pretty easy:
* Previous PPP API used an integer to identify PPP sessions, we are now
using ppp_pcb* control block, therefore all functions changed from "int ppp"
to "ppp_pcb *ppp"
* struct netif was moved outside the PPP structure, you have to provide a netif
for PPP interface in pppoX_create() functions
* PPP session are not started automatically after you created them anymore,
you have to call ppp_connect(), this way you can configure the session before
starting it.
* Previous PPP API used CamelCase, we are now using snake_case.
* Previous PPP API mixed PPPoS and PPPoE calls, this isn't the case anymore,
PPPoS functions are now prefixed pppos_ and PPPoE functions are now prefixed
pppoe_, common functions are now prefixed ppp_.
* New PPPERR_ error codes added, check you have all of them in your status
callback function
* Only the following include files should now be used in user application:
#include "netif/ppp/pppapi.h"
#include "netif/ppp/pppos.h"
#include "netif/ppp/pppoe.h"
#include "netif/ppp/pppol2tp.h"
Functions from ppp.h can be used, but you don't need to include this header
file as it is already included by above header files.
* PPP_INPROC_OWNTHREAD was broken by design and was removed, you have to create
your own serial rx thread
* PPP_INPROC_MULTITHREADED option was misnamed and confusing and was renamed
PPP_INPROC_IRQ_SAFE, please read the "PPPoS input path" documentation above
because you might have been fooled by that
* If you used tcpip_callback_with_block() on ppp_ functions you may wish to use
the PPPAPI API instead.
* ppp_sighup and ppp_close functions were merged using an optional argument
"nocarrier" on ppp_close.
* DNS servers are now only remotely asked if LWIP_DNS is set and if
ppp_set_usepeerdns() is set to true, they are now automatically registered
using the dns_setserver() function so you don't need to do that in the PPP
callback anymore.
* PPPoS does not use the SIO API anymore, as such it now requires a serial
output callback in place of sio_write
* PPP_MAXIDLEFLAG is now in ms instead of jiffies
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