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<div id="projectname">lwIP
&#160;<span id="projectnumber">2.1.2</span>
<div id="projectbrief">Lightweight IP stack</div>
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<div class="title">Multithreading </div> </div>
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<div class="textblock"><p>lwIP started targeting single-threaded environments. When adding multi- threading support, instead of making the core thread-safe, another approach was chosen: there is one main thread running the lwIP core (also known as the "tcpip_thread"). When running in a multithreaded environment, raw API functions MUST only be called from the core thread since raw API functions are not protected from concurrent access (aside from pbuf- and memory management functions). Application threads using the sequential- or socket API communicate with this main thread through message passing.</p>
<p>As such, the list of functions that may be called from other threads or an ISR is very limited! Only functions from these API header files are thread-safe:</p><ul>
<li><a class="el" href="api_8h.html">api.h</a></li>
<li><a class="el" href="netbuf_8h.html">netbuf.h</a></li>
<li><a class="el" href="netifapi_8h.html">netifapi.h</a></li>
<li><a class="el" href="sockets_8h.html">sockets.h</a></li>
<li><a class="el" href="sys_8h.html">sys.h</a></li>
<p>Additionaly, memory (de-)allocation functions may be called from multiple threads (not ISR!) with NO_SYS=0 since they are protected by <a class="el" href="group__lwip__opts__lock.html#gae85efb3a5fcf8585c94b3c2669978959">SYS_LIGHTWEIGHT_PROT</a> and/or semaphores.</p>
<p>Netconn or Socket API functions are thread safe against the core thread but they are not reentrant at the control block granularity level. That is, a UDP or TCP control block must not be shared among multiple threads without proper locking.</p>
<p>If <a class="el" href="group__lwip__opts__lock.html#gae85efb3a5fcf8585c94b3c2669978959">SYS_LIGHTWEIGHT_PROT</a> is set to 1 and <a class="el" href="group__lwip__opts__mem.html#ga0a3ef6098813c103e5aba07da76e15e2">LWIP_ALLOW_MEM_FREE_FROM_OTHER_CONTEXT</a> is set to 1, <a class="el" href="group__pbuf.html#gab0dd696fb4b6bc65e548944584f1738b">pbuf_free()</a> may also be called from another thread or an ISR (since only then, mem_free - for PBUF_RAM - may be called from an ISR: otherwise, the HEAP is only protected by semaphores).</p>
<h2>How to get threading done right </h2>
<p>It is strongly recommended to implement the <a class="el" href="group__lwip__opts__lock.html#ga6a30040db307b3459fc11906bd433f75">LWIP_ASSERT_CORE_LOCKED()</a> macro in an application that uses multithreading. lwIP code has several places where a check for a correct thread context is implemented which greatly helps the user to get threading done right. See the example sys_arch.c files in unix and Win32 port in the contrib repository.</p>
<p>In short: Copy the functions sys_mark_tcpip_thread() and sys_check_core_locking() to your port and modify them to work with your OS. Then let <a class="el" href="group__lwip__opts__lock.html#ga6a30040db307b3459fc11906bd433f75">LWIP_ASSERT_CORE_LOCKED()</a> and <a class="el" href="group__lwip__opts__lock.html#gab97d014f7ecf3b20f9d5abc2d0a79a3e">LWIP_MARK_TCPIP_THREAD()</a> point to these functions.</p>
<p>If you use <a class="el" href="group__lwip__opts__lock.html#ga8e46232794349c209e8ed4e9e7e4f011">LWIP_TCPIP_CORE_LOCKING</a>, you also need to copy and adapt the functions sys_lock_tcpip_core() and sys_unlock_tcpip_core(). Let <a class="el" href="tcpip_8h.html#a4700525e737fc025fea4887b172e0c95">LOCK_TCPIP_CORE()</a> and <a class="el" href="tcpip_8h.html#a915effea029b9c4891e1ec635eb1826d">UNLOCK_TCPIP_CORE()</a> point to these functions. </p>
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