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.. _module-pw_build-python:
Python GN templates
The Python build is implemented with GN templates defined in
``pw_build/python.gni``. See the .gni file for complete usage documentation.
.. seealso:: :ref:`docs-python-build`
.. _module-pw_build-pw_python_package:
The main Python template is ``pw_python_package``. Each ``pw_python_package``
target represents a Python package. As described in
:ref:`module-pw_build-python-target`, each ``pw_python_package`` expands to
several subtargets. In summary, these are:
- ``<name>`` - Represents the files themselves
- ``<name>.lint`` - Runs static analysis
- ``<name>.tests`` - Runs all tests for this package
- ``<name>.install`` - Installs the package
- ``<name>.wheel`` - Builds a Python wheel
GN permits using abbreviated labels when the target name matches the directory
name (e.g. ``//foo`` for ``//foo:foo``). For consistency with this, Python
package subtargets are aliased to the directory when the target name is the
same as the directory. For example, these two labels are equivalent:
.. code-block::
The actions in a ``pw_python_package`` (e.g. installing packages and running
Pylint) are done within a single GN toolchain to avoid duplication in
multi-toolchain builds. This toolchain can be set with the
``pw_build_PYTHON_TOOLCHAIN`` GN arg, which defaults to
- ``setup`` - List of setup file paths ( or pyproject.toml & setup.cfg),
which must all be in the same directory.
- ``generate_setup``: As an alternative to ``setup``, generate setup files with
the keywords in this scope. ``name`` is required. This follows the same
structure as a ``setup.cfg`` file's `declarative config
For example:
.. code-block::
generate_setup = {
metadata = {
name = "a_nifty_package"
version = "1.2a"
options = {
install_requires = [ "a_pip_package" ]
- ``sources`` - Python sources files in the package.
- ``tests`` - Test files for this Python package.
- ``python_deps`` - Dependencies on other pw_python_packages in the GN build.
- ``python_test_deps`` - Test-only pw_python_package dependencies.
- ``other_deps`` - Dependencies on GN targets that are not pw_python_packages.
- ``inputs`` - Other files to track, such as package_data.
- ``proto_library`` - A pw_proto_library target to embed in this Python package.
``generate_setup`` is required in place of setup if proto_library is used. See
- ``static_analysis`` List of static analysis tools to run; ``"*"`` (default)
runs all tools. The supported tools are ``"mypy"`` and ``"pylint"``.
- ``pylintrc`` - Optional path to a pylintrc configuration file to use. If not
provided, Pylint's default rcfile search is used. Pylint is executed
from the package's setup directory, so pylintrc files in that directory
will take precedence over others.
- ``mypy_ini`` - Optional path to a mypy configuration file to use. If not
provided, mypy's default configuration file search is used. mypy is
executed from the package's setup directory, so mypy.ini files in that
directory will take precedence over others.
This is an example Python package declaration for a ``pw_my_module`` module.
.. code-block::
pw_python_package("py") {
setup = [
sources = [
tests = [
python_deps = [
python_test_deps = [ "$dir_pw_build/py" ]
pylintrc = "$dir_pigweed/.pylintrc"
A ``pw_python_script`` represents a set of standalone Python scripts and/or
tests. These files support all of the arguments of ``pw_python_package`` except
those ``setup``. These targets can be installed, but this only installs their
``pw_python_script`` allows creating a
:ref:`pw_python_action <module-pw_build-python-action>` associated with the
script. To create an action, pass an ``action`` scope to ``pw_python_script``.
If there is only a single source file, it serves as the action's ``script`` by
An action in ``pw_python_script`` can always be replaced with a standalone
``pw_python_action``, but using the embedded action has some advantages:
- The embedded action target bridges the gap between actions and Python targets.
A Python script can be expressed in a single, concise GN target, rather than
in two overlapping, dependent targets.
- The action automatically depends on the ``pw_python_script``. This ensures
that the script's dependencies are installed and the action automatically
reruns when the script's sources change, without needing to specify a
dependency, a step which is easy to forget.
- Using a ``pw_python_script`` with an embedded action is a simple way to check
an existing action's script with Pylint or Mypy or to add tests.
Represents a group of ``pw_python_package`` and ``pw_python_script`` targets.
These targets do not add any files. Their subtargets simply forward to those of
their dependencies.
Represents a set of local and PyPI requirements, with no associated source
files. These targets serve the role of a ``requirements.txt`` file.
When packages are installed by Pigweed, additional version constraints can be
provided using the ``pw_build_PIP_CONSTRAINTS`` GN arg. This option should
contain a list of paths to pass to the ``--constraint`` option of ``pip
install``. This can be used to synchronize dependency upgrades across a project
which facilitates reproducibility of builds.
Note using multiple ``pw_python_requirements`` that install different versions
of the same package will currently cause unpredictable results, while using
constraints should have correct results (which may be an error indicating a
.. _module-pw_build-python-dist:
Python Distributables
Pigweed also provides some templates to make it easier to bundle Python packages
for deployment. These templates are found in ``pw_build/python_dist.gni``. See
the .gni file for complete documentation on building distributables.
Collects Python wheels for one or more ``pw_python_package`` targets, plus any
additional ``pw_python_package`` targets they depend on, directly or indirectly.
Note that this does not include Python dependencies that come from outside the
GN build, like packages from PyPI, for example. Those should still be declared
in the package's ```` file as usual.
- ``packages`` - List of ``pw_python_package`` targets whose wheels should be
included; their dependencies will be pulled in as wheels also.
- ``directory`` - Output directory for the collected wheels. Defaults to
Wheel collection under the hood
The ``.wheel`` subtarget of every ``pw_python_package`` generates a wheel
(``.whl``) for the Python package. The ``pw_python_wheels`` template figures
out which wheels to collect by traversing the ``pw_python_package_wheels``
`GN metadata
<>`_ key,
which lists the output directory for each wheel.
Generates a ``.zip`` archive suitable for deployment outside of the project's
developer environment. The generated ``.zip`` contains Python wheels
(``.whl`` files) for one or more ``pw_python_package`` targets, plus wheels for
any additional ``pw_python_package`` targets in the GN build they depend on,
directly or indirectly. Dependencies from outside the GN build, such as packages
from PyPI, must be listed in packages' ```` or ``setup.cfg`` files as
The ``.zip`` also includes simple setup scripts for Linux,
MacOS, and Windows. The setup scripts automatically create a Python virtual
environment and install the whole collection of wheels into it using ``pip``.
Optionally, additional files and directories can be included in the archive.
One common example of an additional file to include is a README file with setup
and usage instructions for the distributable. A simple ready-to-use README file
is available at ``pw_build/py_dist/``.
- ``packages`` - A list of `pw_python_package` targets whose wheels should be
included; their dependencies will be pulled in as wheels also.
- ``inputs`` - An optional list of extra files to include in the generated
``.zip``, formatted the same way as the ``inputs`` argument to ``pw_zip``
- ``dirs`` - An optional list of directories to include in the generated
``.zip``, formatted the same was as the ``dirs`` argument to ``pw_zip``
.. code-block::
pw_python_zip_with_setup("my_tools") {
packages = [ ":some_python_package" ]
inputs = [ "$dir_pw_build/python_dist/ > /${target_name}/" ]
Generates a directory of Python packages from source files suitable for
deployment outside of the project developer environment. The resulting directory
contains only files mentioned in each package's ``setup.cfg`` file. This is
useful for bundling multiple Python packages up into a single package for
distribution to other locations like `<>`_.
- ``packages`` - A list of :ref:`module-pw_build-pw_python_package` targets to be installed into
the build directory. Their dependencies will be pulled in as wheels also.
- ``include_tests`` - If true, copy Python package tests to a ``tests`` subdir.
- ``extra_files`` - A list of extra files that should be included in the output.
The format of each item in this list follows this convention:
.. code-block:: text
//some/nested/source_file > nested/destination_file
- Source and destination file should be separated by ``>``.
- The source file should be a GN target label (starting with ``//``).
- The destination file will be relative to the generated output
directory. Parent directories are automatically created for each file. If a
file would be overwritten an error is raised.
- ``generate_setup_cfg`` - If included, create a merged ``setup.cfg`` for all
python Packages using a ``common_config_file`` as a base. That file should
contain the required fields in the ``metadata`` and ``options`` sections as
shown in
`Configuring setup() using setup.cfg files <>`_.
``append_git_sha_to_version`` and ``append_date_to_version`` will optionally
append the current git SHA or date to the package version string after a ``+``
.. code-block::
generate_setup_cfg = {
common_config_file = "pypi_common_setup.cfg"
append_git_sha_to_version = true
append_date_to_version = true
Using this template will create an additional target for and building a Python
wheel. For example if you define ``pw_create_python_source_tree("awesome")`` the
resulting targets that get created will be:
- ``awesome`` - This will create the merged package with all source files in
place in the out directory under ``out/obj/awesome/``.
- ``awesome.wheel`` - This builds a Python wheel from the above source files
under ``out/obj/awesome._build_wheel/awesome*.whl``.
:octicon:`file;1em` ./pw_env_setup/
.. code-block::
pw_create_python_source_tree("build_python_source_tree") {
packages = [
include_tests = true
extra_files = [
"// > ./",
"//some_python_package/py/BUILD.bazel > some_python_package/BUILD.bazel",
"//another_python_package/py/BUILD.bazel > another_python_package/BUILD.bazel",
generate_setup_cfg = {
common_config_file = "pypi_common_setup.cfg"
append_git_sha_to_version = true
append_date_to_version = true
:octicon:`file-directory;1em` ./out/obj/pw_env_setup/build_python_source_tree/
.. code-block:: text
$ tree ./out/obj/pw_env_setup/build_python_source_tree/
├── setup.cfg
├── some_python_package
│ ├── BUILD.bazel
│ ├──
│ ├── py.typed
│ ├──
│ └── tests
│ └──
└── another_python_package
├── BUILD.bazel
├── py.typed
└── tests