blob: eff359691d5844ebe0b62918d58e99d7eea6e959 [file] [log] [blame]
#! /usr/bin/env python3
# Copyright (c) 2017 Linaro Limited.
# Copyright (c) 2017 Open Source Foundries Limited.
# SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0
"""Zephyr binary runner core interfaces
This provides the core ZephyrBinaryRunner class meant for public use,
as well as some other helpers for concrete runner classes.
import abc
import argparse
import errno
import logging
import os
import platform
import shlex
import shutil
import signal
import subprocess
import re
from typing import Dict, List, NamedTuple, NoReturn, Optional, Set, Type, \
# Turn on to enable just logging the commands that would be run (at
# info rather than debug level), without actually running them. This
# can break runners that are expecting output or if one command
# depends on another, so it's just for debugging.
_DRY_RUN = False
_logger = logging.getLogger('runners')
class _DebugDummyPopen:
def terminate(self):
def wait(self):
MAX_PORT = 49151
class NetworkPortHelper:
'''Helper class for dealing with local IP network ports.'''
def get_unused_ports(self, starting_from):
'''Find unused network ports, starting at given values.
starting_from is an iterable of ports the caller would like to use.
The return value is an iterable of ports, in the same order, using
the given values if they were unused, or the next sequentially
available unused port otherwise.
Ports may be bound between this call's check and actual usage, so
callers still need to handle errors involving returned ports.'''
start = list(starting_from)
used = self._used_now()
ret = []
for desired in start:
port = desired
while port in used:
port += 1
if port > MAX_PORT:
msg = "ports above {} are in use"
raise ValueError(msg.format(desired))
return ret
def _used_now(self):
handlers = {
'Windows': self._used_now_windows,
'Linux': self._used_now_linux,
'Darwin': self._used_now_darwin,
handler = handlers[platform.system()]
return handler()
def _used_now_windows(self):
cmd = ['netstat', '-a', '-n', '-p', 'tcp']
return self._parser_windows(cmd)
def _used_now_linux(self):
cmd = ['ss', '-a', '-n', '-t']
return self._parser_linux(cmd)
def _used_now_darwin(self):
cmd = ['netstat', '-a', '-n', '-p', 'tcp']
return self._parser_darwin(cmd)
def _parser_windows(cmd):
out = subprocess.check_output(cmd).split(b'\r\n')
used_bytes = [x.split()[1].rsplit(b':', 1)[1] for x in out
if x.startswith(b' TCP')]
return {int(b) for b in used_bytes}
def _parser_linux(cmd):
out = subprocess.check_output(cmd).splitlines()[1:]
used_bytes = [s.split()[3].rsplit(b':', 1)[1] for s in out]
return {int(b) for b in used_bytes}
def _parser_darwin(cmd):
out = subprocess.check_output(cmd).split(b'\n')
used_bytes = [x.split()[3].rsplit(b':', 1)[1] for x in out
if x.startswith(b'tcp')]
return {int(b) for b in used_bytes}
class BuildConfiguration:
'''This helper class provides access to build-time configuration.
Configuration options can be read as if the object were a dict,
either object['CONFIG_FOO'] or object.get('CONFIG_FOO').
Kconfig configuration values are available (parsed from .config).'''
def __init__(self, build_dir: str):
self.build_dir = build_dir
self.options: Dict[str, Union[str, int]] = {}
self.path = os.path.join(self.build_dir, 'zephyr', '.config')
def __contains__(self, item):
return item in self.options
def __getitem__(self, item):
return self.options[item]
def get(self, option, *args):
return self.options.get(option, *args)
def getboolean(self, option):
'''If a boolean option is explicitly set to y or n,
returns its value. Otherwise, falls back to False.
return self.options.get(option, False)
def _parse(self):
filename = self.path
opt_value = re.compile('^(?P<option>CONFIG_[A-Za-z0-9_]+)=(?P<value>.*)$')
not_set = re.compile('^# (?P<option>CONFIG_[A-Za-z0-9_]+) is not set$')
with open(filename, 'r') as f:
for line in f:
match = opt_value.match(line)
if match:
value ='value').rstrip()
if value.startswith('"') and value.endswith('"'):
# A string literal should have the quotes stripped,
# but otherwise be left as is.
value = value[1:-1]
elif value == 'y':
# The character 'y' is a boolean option
# that is set to True.
value = True
# Neither a string nor 'y', so try to parse it
# as an integer.
base = 16 if value.startswith('0x') else 10
self.options['option')] = int(value, base=base)
except ValueError:
self.options['option')] = value
match = not_set.match(line)
if match:
# '# CONFIG_FOO is not set' means a boolean option is false.
self.options['option')] = False
class MissingProgram(FileNotFoundError):
'''FileNotFoundError subclass for missing program dependencies.
No significant changes from the parent FileNotFoundError; this is
useful for explicitly signaling that the file in question is a
program that some class requires to proceed.
The filename attribute contains the missing program.'''
def __init__(self, program):
super().__init__(errno.ENOENT, os.strerror(errno.ENOENT), program)
class RunnerCaps:
'''This class represents a runner class's capabilities.
Each capability is represented as an attribute with the same
name. Flag attributes are True or False.
Available capabilities:
- commands: set of supported commands; default is {'flash',
'debug', 'debugserver', 'attach'}.
- dev_id: whether the runner supports device identifiers, in the form of an
-i, --dev-id option. This is useful when the user has multiple debuggers
connected to a single computer, in order to select which one will be used
with the command provided.
- flash_addr: whether the runner supports flashing to an
arbitrary address. Default is False. If true, the runner
must honor the --dt-flash option.
- erase: whether the runner supports an --erase option, which
does a mass-erase of the entire addressable flash on the target
before flashing. On multi-core SoCs, this may only erase portions of
flash specific the actual target core. (This option can be useful for
things like clearing out old settings values or other subsystem state
that may affect the behavior of the zephyr image. It is also sometimes
needed by SoCs which have flash-like areas that can't be sector
erased by the underlying tool before flashing; UICR on nRF SoCs
is one example.)
- tool_opt: whether the runner supports a --tool-opt (-O) option, which
can be given multiple times and is passed on to the underlying tool
that the runner wraps.
def __init__(self,
commands: Set[str] = {'flash', 'debug',
'debugserver', 'attach'},
dev_id: bool = False,
flash_addr: bool = False,
erase: bool = False,
tool_opt: bool = False):
self.commands = commands
self.dev_id = dev_id
self.flash_addr = bool(flash_addr)
self.erase = bool(erase)
self.tool_opt = bool(tool_opt)
def __str__(self):
return (f'RunnerCaps(commands={self.commands}, '
f'dev_id={self.dev_id}, '
f'flash_addr={self.flash_addr}, '
f'erase={self.erase}, '
def _missing_cap(cls: Type['ZephyrBinaryRunner'], option: str) -> NoReturn:
# Helper function that's called when an option was given on the
# command line that corresponds to a missing capability in the
# runner class cls.
raise ValueError(f"{} doesn't support {option} option")
class RunnerConfig(NamedTuple):
'''Runner execution-time configuration.
This is a common object shared by all runners. Individual runners
can register specific configuration options using their
do_add_parser() hooks.
build_dir: str # application build directory
board_dir: str # board definition directory
elf_file: Optional[str] # zephyr.elf path, or None
hex_file: Optional[str] # zephyr.hex path, or None
bin_file: Optional[str] # zephyr.bin path, or None
gdb: Optional[str] = None # path to a usable gdb
openocd: Optional[str] = None # path to a usable openocd
openocd_search: List[str] = [] # add these paths to the openocd search path
_YN_CHOICES = ['Y', 'y', 'N', 'n', 'yes', 'no', 'YES', 'NO']
class _DTFlashAction(argparse.Action):
def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
if values.lower().startswith('y'):
namespace.dt_flash = True
namespace.dt_flash = False
class _ToggleAction(argparse.Action):
def __call__(self, parser, args, ignored, option):
setattr(args, self.dest, not option.startswith('--no-'))
class DeprecatedAction(argparse.Action):
def __call__(self, parser, namespace, values, option_string=None):
_logger.warning(f'Argument {self.option_strings[0]} is deprecated, '
f'use {self._replacement} instead.')
setattr(namespace, self.dest, values)
def depr_action(*args, replacement=None, **kwargs):
action = DeprecatedAction(*args, **kwargs)
setattr(action, '_replacement', replacement)
return action
class ZephyrBinaryRunner(abc.ABC):
'''Abstract superclass for binary runners (flashers, debuggers).
**Note**: this class's API has changed relatively rarely since it
as added, but it is not considered a stable Zephyr API, and may change
without notice.
With some exceptions, boards supported by Zephyr must provide
generic means to be flashed (have a Zephyr firmware binary
permanently installed on the device for running) and debugged
(have a breakpoint debugger and program loader on a host
workstation attached to a running target).
This is supported by four top-level commands managed by the
Zephyr build system:
- 'flash': flash a previously configured binary to the board,
start execution on the target, then return.
- 'debug': connect to the board via a debugging protocol, program
the flash, then drop the user into a debugger interface with
symbol tables loaded from the current binary, and block until it
- 'debugserver': connect via a board-specific debugging protocol,
then reset and halt the target. Ensure the user is now able to
connect to a debug server with symbol tables loaded from the
- 'attach': connect to the board via a debugging protocol, then drop
the user into a debugger interface with symbol tables loaded from
the current binary, and block until it exits. Unlike 'debug', this
command does not program the flash.
This class provides an API for these commands. Every subclass is
called a 'runner' for short. Each runner has a name (like
'pyocd'), and declares commands it can handle (like
'flash'). Boards (like 'nrf52dk_nrf52832') declare which runner(s)
are compatible with them to the Zephyr build system, along with
information on how to configure the runner to work with the board.
The build system will then place enough information in the build
directory to create and use runners with this class's create()
method, which provides a command line argument parsing API. You
can also create runners by instantiating subclasses directly.
In order to define your own runner, you need to:
1. Define a ZephyrBinaryRunner subclass, and implement its
abstract methods. You may need to override capabilities().
2. Make sure the Python module defining your runner class is
imported, e.g. by editing this package's (otherwise,
get_runners() won't work).
3. Give your runner's name to the Zephyr build system in your
board's board.cmake.
Additional advice:
- If you need to import any non-standard-library modules, make sure
to catch ImportError and defer complaints about it to a RuntimeError
if one is missing. This avoids affecting users that don't require your
runner, while still making it clear what went wrong to users that do
require it that don't have the necessary modules installed.
- If you need to ask the user something (e.g. using input()), do it
in your create() classmethod, not do_run(). That ensures your
__init__() really has everything it needs to call do_run(), and also
avoids calling input() when not instantiating within a command line
- Use self.logger to log messages using the standard library's
logging API; your logger is named "runner.<your-runner-name()>"
For command-line invocation from the Zephyr build system, runners
define their own argparse-based interface through the common
add_parser() (and runner-specific do_add_parser() it delegates
to), and provide a way to create instances of themselves from
a RunnerConfig and parsed runner-specific arguments via create().
Runners use a variety of host tools and configuration values, the
user interface to which is abstracted by this class. Each runner
subclass should take any values it needs to execute one of these
commands in its constructor. The actual command execution is
handled in the run() method.'''
def __init__(self, cfg: RunnerConfig):
'''Initialize core runner state.'''
self.cfg = cfg
'''RunnerConfig for this instance.'''
self.logger = logging.getLogger('runners.{}'.format(
'''logging.Logger for this instance.'''
def get_runners() -> List[Type['ZephyrBinaryRunner']]:
'''Get a list of all currently defined runner classes.'''
return ZephyrBinaryRunner.__subclasses__()
def name(cls) -> str:
'''Return this runner's user-visible name.
When choosing a name, pick something short and lowercase,
based on the name of the tool (like openocd, jlink, etc.) or
the target architecture/board (like xtensa etc.).'''
def capabilities(cls) -> RunnerCaps:
'''Returns a RunnerCaps representing this runner's capabilities.
This implementation returns the default capabilities.
Subclasses should override appropriately if needed.'''
return RunnerCaps()
def add_parser(cls, parser):
'''Adds a sub-command parser for this runner.
The given object, parser, is a sub-command parser from the
argparse module. For more details, refer to the documentation
for argparse.ArgumentParser.add_subparsers().
The lone common optional argument is:
* --dt-flash (if the runner capabilities includes flash_addr)
Runner-specific options are added through the do_add_parser()
# Unfortunately, the parser argument's type is not documented
# in typeshed, so we can't type annotate much here.
# Common options that depend on runner capabilities. If a
# capability is not supported, the option string or strings
# are added anyway, to prevent an individual runner class from
# using them to mean something else.
caps = cls.capabilities()
if caps.dev_id:
parser.add_argument('-i', '--dev-id',
parser.add_argument('-i', '--dev-id', help=argparse.SUPPRESS)
if caps.flash_addr:
parser.add_argument('--dt-flash', default='n', choices=_YN_CHOICES,
help='''If 'yes', try to use flash address
information from devicetree when flash
addresses are unknown (e.g. when flashing a .bin)''')
parser.add_argument('--dt-flash', help=argparse.SUPPRESS)
parser.add_argument('--erase', '--no-erase', nargs=0,
help=("mass erase flash before loading, or don't"
if caps.erase else argparse.SUPPRESS))
parser.add_argument('-O', '--tool-opt', dest='tool_opt',
default=[], action='append',
help=(cls.tool_opt_help() if caps.tool_opt
else argparse.SUPPRESS))
# Runner-specific options.
def do_add_parser(cls, parser):
'''Hook for adding runner-specific options.'''
def create(cls, cfg: RunnerConfig,
args: argparse.Namespace) -> 'ZephyrBinaryRunner':
'''Create an instance from command-line arguments.
- ``cfg``: runner configuration (pass to superclass __init__)
- ``args``: arguments parsed from execution environment, as
specified by ``add_parser()``.'''
caps = cls.capabilities()
if args.dev_id and not caps.dev_id:
_missing_cap(cls, '--dev-id')
if args.dt_flash and not caps.flash_addr:
_missing_cap(cls, '--dt-flash')
if args.erase and not caps.erase:
_missing_cap(cls, '--erase')
if args.tool_opt and not caps.tool_opt:
_missing_cap(cls, '--tool-opt')
ret = cls.do_create(cfg, args)
if args.erase:'mass erase requested')
return ret
def do_create(cls, cfg: RunnerConfig,
args: argparse.Namespace) -> 'ZephyrBinaryRunner':
'''Hook for instance creation from command line arguments.'''
def get_flash_address(args: argparse.Namespace,
build_conf: BuildConfiguration,
default: int = 0x0) -> int:
'''Helper method for extracting a flash address.
If args.dt_flash is true, returns the address obtained from
Otherwise (when args.dt_flash is False), the default value is
if args.dt_flash:
return ZephyrBinaryRunner.flash_address_from_build_conf(build_conf)
return default
def flash_address_from_build_conf(build_conf: BuildConfiguration):
'''If CONFIG_HAS_FLASH_LOAD_OFFSET is n in build_conf,
return the CONFIG_FLASH_BASE_ADDRESS value. Otherwise, return
if build_conf.getboolean('CONFIG_HAS_FLASH_LOAD_OFFSET'):
return (build_conf['CONFIG_FLASH_BASE_ADDRESS'] +
return build_conf['CONFIG_FLASH_BASE_ADDRESS']
def run(self, command: str, **kwargs):
'''Runs command ('flash', 'debug', 'debugserver', 'attach').
This is the main entry point to this runner.'''
caps = self.capabilities()
if command not in caps.commands:
raise ValueError('runner {} does not implement command {}'.format(, command))
self.do_run(command, **kwargs)
def do_run(self, command: str, **kwargs):
'''Concrete runner; run() delegates to this. Implement in subclasses.
In case of an unsupported command, raise a ValueError.'''
def build_conf(self) -> BuildConfiguration:
'''Get a BuildConfiguration for the build directory.'''
if not hasattr(self, '_build_conf'):
self._build_conf = BuildConfiguration(self.cfg.build_dir)
return self._build_conf
def thread_info_enabled(self) -> bool:
'''Returns True if self.build_conf has
return self.build_conf.getboolean('CONFIG_DEBUG_THREAD_INFO')
def dev_id_help(cls) -> str:
''' Get the ArgParse help text for the --dev-id option.'''
return '''Device identifier. Use it to select
which debugger, device, node or instance to
target when multiple ones are available or
def tool_opt_help(cls) -> str:
''' Get the ArgParse help text for the --tool-opt option.'''
return '''Option to pass on to the underlying tool used
by this runner. This can be given multiple times;
the resulting arguments will be given to the tool
in the order they appear on the command line.'''
def require(program: str) -> str:
'''Require that a program is installed before proceeding.
:param program: name of the program that is required,
or path to a program binary.
If ``program`` is an absolute path to an existing program
binary, this call succeeds. Otherwise, try to find the program
by name on the system PATH.
If the program can be found, its path is returned.
Otherwise, raises MissingProgram.'''
ret = shutil.which(program)
if ret is None:
raise MissingProgram(program)
return ret
def run_server_and_client(self, server, client):
'''Run a server that ignores SIGINT, and a client that handles it.
This routine portably:
- creates a Popen object for the ``server`` command which ignores
- runs ``client`` in a subprocess while temporarily ignoring SIGINT
- cleans up the server after the client exits.
It's useful to e.g. open a GDB server and client.'''
server_proc = self.popen_ignore_int(server)
def run_client(self, client):
'''Run a client that handles SIGINT.'''
previous = signal.signal(signal.SIGINT, signal.SIG_IGN)
signal.signal(signal.SIGINT, previous)
def _log_cmd(self, cmd: List[str]):
escaped = ' '.join(shlex.quote(s) for s in cmd)
if not _DRY_RUN:
def call(self, cmd: List[str], **kwargs) -> int:
'''Subclass wrapper.
Subclasses should use this method to run command in a
subprocess and get its return code, rather than
using subprocess directly, to keep accurate debug logs.
if _DRY_RUN:
return 0
return, **kwargs)
def check_call(self, cmd: List[str], **kwargs):
'''Subclass subprocess.check_call() wrapper.
Subclasses should use this method to run command in a
subprocess and check that it executed correctly, rather than
using subprocess directly, to keep accurate debug logs.
if _DRY_RUN:
subprocess.check_call(cmd, **kwargs)
def check_output(self, cmd: List[str], **kwargs) -> bytes:
'''Subclass subprocess.check_output() wrapper.
Subclasses should use this method to run command in a
subprocess and check that it executed correctly, rather than
using subprocess directly, to keep accurate debug logs.
if _DRY_RUN:
return b''
return subprocess.check_output(cmd, **kwargs)
def popen_ignore_int(self, cmd: List[str], **kwargs) -> subprocess.Popen:
'''Spawn a child command, ensuring it ignores SIGINT.
The returned subprocess.Popen object must be manually terminated.'''
cflags = 0
preexec = None
system = platform.system()
if system == 'Windows':
# We can't type check this line on Unix operating systems:
# mypy thinks the subprocess module has no such attribute.
cflags |= subprocess.CREATE_NEW_PROCESS_GROUP # type: ignore
elif system in {'Linux', 'Darwin'}:
# We can't type check this on Windows for the same reason.
preexec = os.setsid # type: ignore
if _DRY_RUN:
return _DebugDummyPopen() # type: ignore
return subprocess.Popen(cmd, creationflags=cflags, preexec_fn=preexec, **kwargs)
def ensure_output(self, output_type: str) -> None:
'''Ensure self.cfg has a particular output artifact.
For example, ensure_output('bin') ensures that self.cfg.bin_file
refers to an existing file. Errors out if it's missing or undefined.
:param output_type: string naming the output type
output_file = getattr(self.cfg, f'{output_type}_file', None)
if output_file is None:
err = f'{output_type} file location is unknown.'
elif not os.path.isfile(output_file):
err = f'{output_file} does not exist.'
if output_type in ('elf', 'hex', 'bin'):
err += f' Try enabling CONFIG_BUILD_OUTPUT_{output_type.upper()}.'
# RuntimeError avoids a stack trace saved in run_common.
raise RuntimeError(err)